Category Archive : Law News

Bihar Judicial Services Examination | Syllabus, Eligibility, and Pattern


To prepare effectively, find here the complete details of the Bihar Judicial Service exam, such as exam pattern, syllabus, eligibility criteria, age limit, and much more.

Bihar Judicial Services Examination – Syllabus, Eligibility, and Pattern

BPSC conducts Bihar Judicial Service Exam every year for the recruitment of civil judges. The BPSC Judicial Service recruitment is carried out in three phases – Prelims, Mains, and Interview. The examination is the entry-level exam for law graduates to become appointed as members of the subordinate judiciary. Members are appointed by the state government under the supervision of the respective high court. The members are appointed based on the Judiciary exam.

Eligibility

Educational Qualification: In order to appear for the BiharJudicial Service Exam, candidates must have an LLB or equivalent degree from an institute that is recognized by the Bar Council of India.

Age Limit: The lower age limit is 22 years and upper age limit is 35 years for appearing at BPSC Judicial Service Exam. The age relaxation for the OBC category candidates is 3 years and for SC/ST Category is 5 years.

Other: Candidates with a permanent domicile of Bihar and those who belong to reserved category will be offered relaxation in the upper age limit.

Attempts Limit

The attempts are limited as per the lower and maximum age limit. The minimum and maximum age of the applicants are specified in the official notification. All applicants must have attained the age of 22 years. The maximum age of the applicants must not be more than 35 years.

Reservation

Only those reserved category candidates are eligible for reservation who is a permanent resident of Bihar State. Reserved Category candidates from other states will be treated as General categories.

Bihar Judicial Service Exam Exam Pattern

BPSC Judicial Service Prelims Exam Pattern

The candidate needs to qualify in both Paper 1 (General Studies) and Paper 2 (Law) to appear in Mains and interview. Candidates need to obtain a minimum of 30 marks in general English and Hindi papers to qualify Mains exam. However, the score of these two papers will not be counted in the final merit.

BPSC Judicial Service Mains Exam Pattern

Candidates are advised to go through these subjects for their Mains round: General Knowledge including current affairs, Elementary General Science, General Hindi, General English, and Law of Evidence and Procedure.

BPSC Judicial Service Interview

Candidates who qualify Prelims and Mains Exam will be called for a personal interview round. The final interview will carry 100 marks on the merit list.

Bihar Judicial Service Exam Syllabus

The Bihar Judicial Service Preliminary exam has two papers :

Paper 1 – multiple choice questions from General Studies / General Knowledge for 100 marks.

Paper 2– multiple choice questions from Law topics for 150 marks.

Paper 1

  1. General Knowledge including current affairs
  2. Elementary General Science

Paper 2

  1. Law of Evidence & Procedure
  2. Constitutional and Administrative Law of India
  3. Hindu Law & Muhammadan Law
  4. Law of Transfer of Property, Principles of Equity, Law of Trusts and Specific Relief Act
  5. Law of Contracts & Torts
  6. Commercial Law

Note: The General knowledge paper will include both static and current GK-related questions. Static GK refers to information that will not change e.g. Which city of the capital of India? Dynamic or current GK refers to facts that will change and get updated over time. e.g. Who is the current President of India?

Syllabus for Main Exam

There are five compulsory papers, of which Hindi & English are of qualifying nature.

  • General Knowledge / General Studies including Current Affairs – 150 marks
  • Elementary General Science – 100 marks
  • General Hindi – 100 marks
  • General English – 100 marks
  • Law of Evidence and Procedure – 150 marks

There will be a choice of five optional papers, from which, candidates have to select three :

  • Optional Constitutional Law of India and England – 150 marks
  • Hindu law and Mohammedan law – 150 marks
  • Transfer of Property Act, Principles of Equity, Law of Trusts and Specific Relief Act – 150 marks
  • Law of Contract and Torts – 150 marks
  • Commercial Law – 150 marks

Official Link

For more information, Click Here

Important Links

Law Library: Notes and Study Material for LLB, LLM, Judiciary, and Entrance Exams

Law Aspirants: Ultimate Test Prep Destination



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Assam Judicial Services Examination | Syllabus, Eligibility, Exam Pattern and Application


Find every required detail related to the Assam Judicial Services Exam, such as eligibility criteria, age limit, exam pattern, and syllabus.

Assam Judicial Services Examination | Syllabus, Eligibility, Exam Pattern and Application

Gauhati High Court conducts the Assam Judicial Services Exam for the recruitment of Grade III posts. Gauhati High Court releases several vacancies almost every year or two for the recruitment of Grade III posts on their official website.

This is an entry-level examination for law graduates to get appointed in the subordinate judiciary. The examination consists of a Preliminary Examination(Screening Test), a Main(Written) Examination, and a Viva Voce/Interview.

Eligibility

  • Citizen of India as defined in Articles 5 and 6 of the Constitution.
  • Bachelor’s degree in law granted by a recognized university.

Age Limit

  • 38 years or below (for unreserved category)
  • 43 years of age in the case of SC/ST.
  • Assam Judicial Services Examination Pattern

The Assam Judicial Services Exam involves three stages: –

Stage I – Preliminary Exam (Objective Exam)-100 marks

Stage II – Mains Exam (Written)- 450 marks

Stage III – Viva Voice (Interview)- 50 marks

Syllabus

Preliminary Syllabus

The Preliminary Examination(Screening Test) shall consist of objective-type questions of 100 marks of which 90 marks will cover the below-mentioned subjects-

  • General Knowledge
  • Aptitude, English
  • Constitution of India
  • Code of Civil procedure
  • Criminal Procedure Code
  • Transfer of Property Act
  • Indian Contract Act
  • Indian Penal Code
  • Indian Evidence Act
  • Law of Torts
  • Proficiency in the official language (s) of the State of Assam (Remaining 10 Marks)

In Prelims, there are a total number of 100 questions of 1 mark each.

There is no negative marking for wrong answers.

Paper duration- 2 hours.

Mains

Mains (Written) examination is carried out to test the practical abilities of the candidate and his overall understanding of the subject.

Paper 1 – English (100 marks: 3 hours)

  • Essay
  • Precis Writing
  • Grammar

Paper 2 – General Knowledge (100 marks: 3 hours)

  • Objective Test
  • Aptitude Test

Paper 3 – Law Paper 1 (100 marks: 3 hours)

  • Transfer of Property Act
  • Constitution of India
  • Civil Procedure Code
  • Indian Contract Act

Paper 4 – Law Paper 2 (100 marks: 3 hours)

  • Indian Penal Code
  • Criminal Procedure Code
  • Law of Torts
  • Indian Evidence Act

Paper 5– Paper to test the proficiency in the official language in the State of Assam ( Assamese) (Qualifying in Nature) (50 Marks: 2 hours)

Interview/ Viva Voce (50 marks)

Selection Criteria

  1. Minimum 60% marks are required in Prelims to qualify for the Mains exam.
  2. Minimum 60% marks overall are required in Mains to become eligible for Interview/Viva Voce, subject to minimum of 45% marks required in all individual papers except for language paper.
  3. For SC/ST candidates 50 % marks overall + 40% in individual papers are required in Mains to become eligible for Interview/Viva Voce.
  4. 35% Marks are required to qualify for a Language paper.
  5. Candidates shall have to secure minimum 60% marks in the interview round.

Official Website

For more information, Click Here

Important Links

Law Library: Notes and Study Material for LLB, LLM, Judiciary, and Entrance Exams

Law Aspirants: Ultimate Test Prep Destination



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Constitutional Law Lecture Series Program 2022


Manipal Law School, Bengaluru is organising an online Constitutional Law Lecture Series Program 2022 on 26th November 2022.Introduction to Manipal Law School, BengaluruManipal Law School (MAHE) Bengaluru strives for a paradigm shift in the field of legal education and is aspiring to be a Global Law School in near future. MLS focuses on enabling students to comprehend multi-dimensional legal systems with a clear objective of developing their abilities by persuasively enhancing their written…

Manipal Law School, Bengaluru is organising an online Constitutional Law Lecture Series Program 2022 on 26th November 2022.

Introduction to Manipal Law School, Bengaluru

Manipal Law School (MAHE) Bengaluru strives for a paradigm shift in the field of legal education and is aspiring to be a Global Law School in near future. MLS focuses on enabling students to comprehend multi-dimensional legal systems with a clear objective of developing their abilities by persuasively enhancing their written and oral skills, anticipating outcomes, and using research and analytical skills in problem-solving. The curricula and pedagogy at MLS aim to be at par with leading law schools involving contemporary global issues and standard legal practices. Cutting edge technology and Law interface is one of the research domains that will foster creation of tech lawyers/professionals.

MLS fosters a holistic academic environment in a state-of-art infrastructure that gives students inclusive access to progressive, adaptive, and innovative legal education. The learning pedagogy consists of theoretical and practical involvement with neighbourhood communities. MLS believes in producing lawyers who would excel in their profession and be humane with a strong sense of social justice.

A major thrust is given to the courses like professional ethics to make students more acclimatized to the practical nuances of the legal career. An excellent learning environment at MLS comprises an eco-sustainable green campus, a wide range of co-curricular and extracurricular activities, legal research centers, diverse departments with multidisciplinary expertise, and Legal Aid clinics to enhance the study of law. The students, under the guidance of our exemplary faculty, endeavour for an active engagement in the service to the local, regional, national, and international communities. Our goal is to create a holistic community of teachers and learners in a conducive and sustainable ecosystem.

About the Constitutional Law Lecture Series:

Constitutional law is the body of rights, rules, doctrines, and conventions that administer the operation of political society. The Indian Constitution being the supreme law of the land is a principal social document that is aided by Fundamental Rights & Directive Principles of State Policy acting together. Students of law need to understand the basics of Constitutional Law in India. Thus, Manipal Law School, Bangalore welcomes you to register for this First leg of this lecture series to get an understanding of the significant concepts and fundamentals of Indian Constitutional Law. We also intend to make students aware of the emergence, evolution, and philosophical background behind framing the Indian Constitution.

The interpreters of the Constitution ought to know the interplay between the Constitution and Social Justice as it seeks to do justice to the people of the State. We attempt to deliver to the students through this lecture series the crux of the structure of social justice and its challenges. As we know that one of the key rights to freedom that is enshrined under the Constitution is Freedom of Speech and expression. This series also aims to deliver knowledge of such freedom and its reasonable restrictions with special reference to equality and privacy norms in virtual world. As per our Constitution, the Judiciary has powers to pass any order or decree to do complete justice. This power is invoked by the Judiciary to close the gaps between existing legislations.

We plan to provide to the students an understanding of the impacts and limitations of judicial legislations. Moreover, the true intent of the drafters of Constitution is difficult to be understood by the interpreters. Therefore, this lecture series also include the concept of constitutional domains and human right mechanisms which delves into certain key notions. Apart from this, another important aspect of Constitutional law is the concept of constitutional morality. The expert speakers will give a detailed analysis of that concept because several of its proponents have described it as transformative and revolutionary in nature. We sincerely invite and highly recommend you make use of this first talk of this lecture series by registering for the same and attending all sessions either in physical/virtual mode to get an elemental knowledge of the subject concerned.

PROGRAMME SCHEDULE

  • MAA SARASWATI VANDANA & LIGHTING THE LAMP: 11.00AM-11.05AM
  • INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAM: 11.05 AM- 11.14 AM | Dr. Rahul Mishra, Associate Professor, Manipal Law School MAHE, Bengaluru Campus
  • READING THE PREAMBLE OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: 11.14 AM-11.15 AM
  • WELCOME ADDRESS: 11.10 AM – 11.15 AM |  Prof (Dr) Avinash Dadhich, Director, Manipal Law School, MAHE, Bengaluru Campus
  • INAGURAL ADDRESS: 11.15AM- 11.25AM | Prof (Dr) Pragna Rao, Pro. Vice Chancellor, MAHE, Bengaluru Campus
  • KEYNOTE ADDRESS: 11.25 AM-12.00 PM | Hon’ble Justice Pinaki Chandra Ghose, Former Judge, Supreme Court of India & Former first Lokpal of India
  • SPECIAL ADDRESS: 12 PM-12.35 PM | Hon’ble Mr. Justice M. I. Arun, Judge, Karnataka High Court, Bengaluru
  • Q & A SESSION: 12.35 PM – 12.55 PM
  • VOTE OF THANKS: 12.55 PM- 1 PM | Prof (Dr) Sunil John, Manipal Law School, MAHE, Bengaluru Campus
  • NATIONAL ANTHEM

Instructions for Participants

Registration Fee: There shall be no fee to attend the said program.

Microsoft Team Link for joining the program: Click Here

Participants are requested to register either on or before 24TH November 2022 using the following registration form:

Registration form Link: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSf-v6SmjhtZLzkXAn-q7hhsL-4dGO1b0CO9ALI7ORZrnwfZ0w/viewform?usp=pp_url

Event Coordinator

Dr. Rahul Mishra, Associate Professor, Manipal Law School, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Bangalore

Email: [email protected]

Tel: +919694865994

Student Coordinators:

  • Harshita Reddy, Tel: +917019626005
  • Ankit Vaas , Tel: +918300192279
  • Suraj Sah, Tel: +917200060441
  • Mukesh Pal ,Tel: +917470327977

Reported By: Dr. Rahul Mishra

Law Library: Notes and Study Material for LLB, LLM, Judiciary, and Entrance Exams

Law Aspirants: Ultimate Test Prep Destination



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Here’s a Complete Guide with a Sample


A resume is something that plays the most important role when one applies for a job. It is also known as Curriculum Vitae or CV. The resume must be drafted in a very well manner in order to crack the interview. This is because a resume leaves the first impression over the recruiter. if the resume is not presented in a good manner or if it is written very badly, there are high chances that one may find trouble during the interview or for getting the job that one is seeking.

It is, thus, very important to give the required time for the drafting of resume. However, it can be difficult to figure out what is to be put in the resume when one is applying for the job.

There should be a concise yet comprehensive insight regarding the professional as well as personal strengths of the one who is preparing the resume. For the purpose of writing a resume, there are a lot of resumes formats that are available from which one can choose.

These formats include targeted resumes, functional resumes, chronological resumes and many more. Regardless of any of the types of resumes, one may choose to form, there is a set of guidelines that one is required to follow for this purpose.

Guidelines for a Resume

Resume Length

One must make a resume as concise as one can. The maximum length for a resume ideally should not exceed two pages. However, it is preferred to have a resume for one page. For a candidate who is applying for entry-level, the resume must not exceed one page while the candidate who is making an application for some post requiring experience, the resume must not be more than two pages.

Size and Font

One must not be inclined towards using ornate fonts that are very difficult to read. Fonts like Times New Roman, Calibri, Arial or any other font that is similar to the above-mentioned fonts are considered to be the best for using while drafting the resume.

The font size that should be used for resume must not increase 12 points and decrease 10 points. However, the name of the candidate as well as the headings of various sections in the resume can be a font that is bold or a little bit larger.

Margins

The format of the standard margin that should be used in the pages of the Microsoft word is 1″ margin on all the four sides of the page i.e. right, left, bottom as well as top sides of the page. However, if one wants to reduce the length of the resume by tightening the margins, one can reduce the margin of the pages from 1″ to ½” on two sides of the page i.e. bottom as well as the top side of the page.

Layout

After coming on a conclusion of what all sections have to be mentioned in the resume, one must be sure that all the sections have to be kept uniform.

For instance, if the heading of one of the sections is put in italics, then heading of all the other sections have to be put in italics only. However, if one has bolded the title of the job, then all the titles have to be bolded. There is a requirement of uniformity in the resume.

Here’s a Draft Resume: Click to Download (TO BE ADDED)

Information that is to be avoided

One must not include the personal information, for instance, the height, birthday, children, marital status, weight and other related information in the resume. However, if the company has specifically asked for such information, then it becomes mandatory for the candidate to provide all the information that is required.

Accuracy

One must vet the resume very carefully before forwarding it somewhere. Check names of companies, grammar, spelling, tenses, names of people and so on. One can even consult any friend or counsellor of career services for getting the resume checked.

Guidelines for a perfect Resume

Identification

One must include his/ her name, telephone number, address as well as an email address at the top of the resume in the identification section. These information form the basic and important part of the resume. One must be adamant to use a professional email address instead of using some funky address.

Objective

If one wants to include an objective for the resume, one must keep it specific as well as concise. The objective must include the job or field one is desiring to seek, what all things one is hoping in order to fulfil the goals in that field and so on. However, this section of the objective is not mandatory i.e. optional.

Profile

Another section which is optional in nature is the profile of resume. The profile is inclusive of summary of the experiences, skills as well as the goals. All of these should be written in a specific manner for the job posting.

Education

This section gives a complete insight into the education that one has pursued. It is inclusive of all the degrees that one has received and all the degrees have to be represented in a chronological manner i.e. the degree which is most recent has to be represented first.

One must not forget the name of each of the institutions, location of the institutions and the date of graduation. It also includes the major or minor fields along with the GPA, projects, publications, honours and so on.

Experience

This is another important section in the resume. It is inclusive of the work experience in the reverse chronological manner i.e. the most recent experience has to be listed first. In addition to it, this section includes volunteer works, internships as well as the jobs.

The students of high school must include the sports team and the clubs they have participated in their resume. The name of the company, dates of employment as well as the position of employment should be mentioned in this section of the resume.

In addition to it, one must provide an insight into the work done by him/ her in that company in the form of bullet points. All the achievements must be described in the active voice form of the verb and the use of passive phrases should be avoided as much as possible.

Moots

Moots play a very important role in the life of a law student. They help to secure good positions as mooting gives a lot of experience with regards to research, drafting and pleadings. Moots in the resume of any law student undoubtedly gives him/ her an upper edge from various other law students Applying for the same position.

Publication

Another important section is publications. In this section, a law student is expected to jot down all the research papers, which he got published in his name. The more research papers in the resume, the more experience in research are being shown. And Researching skills is another important aspect at which firms are targeting at.

Skills

This section is completely optional. It includes all the computer systems in which one is proficient at and especially if such skills are in relation to the position that one is applying for. It may also include any foreign language to which one is familiar with.

One must not forget to state the language as well the level of the familiarity i.e. fluent, proficient, intermediate or beginner. One can even list any other skill that one is possessing and is in relation with the resume.

Hobbies and Interest

One can even include another section representing all the hobbies and interest that are in relation to the position that one is applying for.

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How to Build your CV for a Law Firm: An Easy Guide for Students



Building a resume or a Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a daunting task, isn’t it? What if I told you that it actually only takes five minutes, and it does not even matter much? Well, I would be lying about both things. However, it is a fair transaction – a back-breaking effort for a well-lit future. It might be the only sheet of paper that actually matters. In the following words, I will explain two related, yet distinct things – Building a law firm resume and drafting it

Building a Good CV for a Law Firm

By this, I refer to the actual task of achieving the content that goes in your resume. The series of planning, execution and experience spanning 3 or 5 years as the course may be that incorporates the professional skeleton of your law school life. The first step toward having a desirable resume is to realize as soon as possible that you have the power and the responsibility to curate your resume. Law school curriculum is not like an ordinary course; here you fill your own plate choosing from the wide array of available opportunities. There is only so much that your plate can hold, so you need to pick carefully but you do need to pick. Therefore, you need to plan!

Focus on your Target Audience and Start Researching

Here, the target is a law firm. Thus begins the research part of it. Researching which top-paying firm is on lists and surveys is interesting but not particularly useful. You need to research and make a list of firms that are likely to offer an internship for your current profile. Your profile will take time to get better. Cursing it as it stands now is not going to help. Just get going with an internship at a start-up firm or an internship through someone you know or by contacting alumni on LinkedIn. Put that on your resume and apply for a better place for three months far.

The Timeline

Building a resume is like a well-synchronized heist! You need a written timeline for your plan to get executed at the right time no matter how occupied you are at that time. This is how the basic problem goes. For any good internship, you need to apply three months before your proposed start date (unless otherwise mentioned by them). We will deal with the application itself in the second section.

For instance, if this is January and you write the subject of your email as “Internship Application: March 2021; New Delhi Office”, this email will not be responded to unless there was a call for internship posted from their side in the first place.

Thus begins the following up. The often outshined gem of landing big internships is the periodicity and sincerity of your follow-up emails. A follow-up email is just a simple email sent approximately two weeks after the application email. It says that you are still really keen on working with them; it may also mention another skill or experience of yours not previously mentioned and requests them to consider you.

After the first follow up is sent, send another follow-up email one week after that. You can then call the office. So let us see what it does to our timeline:

January 1st – Application

January 14th – 1st Follow up

January 21st – 2nd Follow up

January 30th – Call Office and seek an update

March 1st – Proposed Internship

You have probably begun realizing why alarms are going to be needed to properly execute this plan but let us take it to the next level. This is just one internship application. You need to have a backup plan as well. If you are applying through a cell, there may be restraint in applying to more than one place. It is certainly a bad idea to apply in bulk but it is equally risky to apply to just one. It is the age-old adage –

Put your eggs in a few baskets and then watch them all closely.

So, what is the final picture? Just factor in two other applications following the same dates and add a date before 1st January (say 28th December) on which you will finish making your resume, cover letter, etc.

Brownie Points for a Law Firm Internship

  • Internship at a Government Ministry: An internship at ministries such as the Competition Commission of India, Sports Authority of India, Serious Fraud Investigation Office, Patent Office, Cyber Pad and so on which may be most relevant to the subject area of the desired firm will hold great value in your resume. Remember that you are usually required to be in your 3rd or 4th year to acquire these internships so your first goal should be building a resume for this.
  • Company Secretary (CS) Course: A heatedly debated topic in law school is whether a CS course is helpful or not for a job in a law firm. Well, it may just be settled that it has a good part in securing corporate internships, and sincere performance in those internships might land you a job.
  • If you have found a good company, repeat: Most, if not all, pre-placement offers (PPOs/job offers during law school) are offered to the intern who has worked at the company for at least three months. So, if you feel like you have found a place you want to work at, intern repeatedly, or intern alongside college and acquire months of experience. It will either land you a job there, or the people who now know you there coupled with the experience you acquired will land you another one quickly.

Supplement all of this with periodic research, reading and interaction with peers and seniors and you are all set for the most difficult part of building your CV.

Now, let us gather some tips for effective drafting.

Drafting a Good Resume for a Law Firm – Tips

  • Research the firm you are applying to, and understand the position you will be working at. You are looking for the values they appreciate, subject areas they deal in and the skills required for the given position.
  • Highlight the above skills and subject areas in your resume as well as the values in your cover letter. You can choose to use bold letters for something which is indispensable but do not highlight or colour.
  • It need not be said that your past corporate internships are to be highlighted, and if you have worked there before, do mention it in the email.
  • Firms value skills like leadership and research above others. Find ways to highlight these. Describe organizational achievements like “Led a team of 7 people in the ABC Committee”.
  • Moot Courts, especially on corporate laws, hold great value in your application to a firm if you have a “Semi-finalist” to write. Even quarter-finals or participation in prestigious moots in the area, such as NUJS Herbert Smith, M C Chagla, GLC Tax Law and the like are to be highlighted.
  • Convenorship and equivalent positions in societies matter more than you might think.
  • Proofread it; see that it is aligned correctly on both sides, opens in the web browser and not just Adobe (they won’t download it you see).

More tips and guidance may be drawn from the sample attached below. If you feel the motivation but feel confused and overwhelmed at how to begin, go back to the top and read it again! This time start implementing it as you see it. Good luck!

Contributed By: Ashish Agarwal

Click Here to Download Sample


  1. Online Judiciary Preparation Tool – Legal Bites Academy
  2. Law Library: Notes and Study Material for LLB, LLM, Judiciary and Entrance Exams



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Study Material, Test Series and Tips


Haryana Judicial Service Exam is officially called the HCS Judicial Branch Examination or also referred to as the Haryana Civil Judge Junior Division Exam. This competitive exam is held by the Punjab and Haryana High Court for recruitment for the Civil Judge Junior Division or Judicial Magistrate posts in the cadre of Haryana Civil Service (Judicial Branch). The examination is the entry-level exam for law graduates to become appointed as members of the subordinate judiciary.

Candidates who qualify in the last phase get selected for the posts offered by the Punjab and Haryana High Court.

Take your Haryana Judicial Services Exam preparation to the next level with Legal Bites. Legal Bites provides everything related to Prelims and Mains exam needs, Previous Year Papers, Mock Tests, Subject Tests, Study Material, Syllabus, Tips, and Notifications.

Haryana Judicial Service Exam (HJS): Study Material, Test Series and Tips

Module I: Tips, Guidance, and Details

  1. Syllabus
  2. Free PDF Haryana Judicial Services Prelims Mock Test 1
  3. Free PDF Haryana Judicial Services Prelims Mock Test 2

Module II: Prelims Previous Year Papers PDFs

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2010

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2011

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2013

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2014

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2017

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2018

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2021

Prelims Paper- Available Here.

Module III: Mains Previous Year Papers PDFs

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2013

Paper 1: Civil Law I – Click Here to Download

Paper 2: Civil Law II – Click Here to Download

Paper 3: Criminal Law – Click Here to Download

Paper 4: English – Click Here to Download

Paper 5: Hindi – Click Here to Download

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2015

Paper 1: Civil Law I – Click Here to Download

Paper 2: Civil Law II – Click Here to Download

Paper 3: Criminal Law – Click Here to Download

Paper 4: English – Click Here to Download

Paper 5: Hindi – Click Here to Download

Haryana Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2019

Paper 1: Civil Law I – Click Here to Download

Paper 2: Civil Law II – Click Here to Download

Paper 3: Criminal Law – Click Here to Download

Paper 4: English – Click Here to Download

Paper 5: Hindi – Click Here to Download

Module IV: Test Series

  1. Prelims Mock Test Series
  2. Mains Mock Test Series
  3. Previous Year Test Series

Module V: Haryana Judicial Service Study Material

  1. Legal General Knowledge: Notes, Tips & Study Material
  2. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
  3. Law of Contracts
    1. Sale of Goods
    2. Partnership Act
  4. Constitutional Law
  5. Criminal Laws
    1. Indian Penal Code (IPC),
    2. Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC)
    3. Evidence Act
  6. Family Law
    1. Hindu Law
    2. Muslim Law
  7. The Specific Relief Act, 1963
  8. The Limitation Act, 1963
  9. Contemporary Legal Issues
  10. Registration Act
  11. Haryana Urban (Control of Rent and Eviction) Act
  12. Punjab Courts Act



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Study Material, Test Series and Tips


Rajasthan Judicial Service Exam (RJS) is conducted every year by the Rajasthan High Court for recruitment to posts of Civil Judge Cadre of the RJS. The exam is conducted by Rajasthan Public Service Commission. The examination is the entry-level exam for law graduates to become appointed as members of the subordinate judiciary.

Streamline your preparation with Legal Bites Academy. Count on us for Prelims and Mains exam needs, Previous Year Papers, Mock Tests, Subject Tests, Study Material, Syllabus, Tips, and Notifications.

Rajasthan Judicial Service Exam (RJS): Study Material, Test Series and Tips

Module I: Tips, Guidance, and Details

  1. Syllabus
  2. Free PDF Rajasthan Judicial Services Prelims Mock Test 1
  3. Free PDF Rajasthan Judicial Services Prelims Mock Test 2

Module II: Prelims Previous Year Papers PDFs

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2011

Prelims Paper- Available Here

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2014

Prelims Paper- Available Here

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2015

Prelims Paper- Available Here

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2016

Prelims Paper- Available Here

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Prelims Examination 2018

Prelims Paper- Available Here

Module III: Mains Previous Year Papers PDFs

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2013

Paper 1: English – Click Here to Download Pdf

Paper 2: Hindi – Click Here to Download Pdf

Paper 3: Law Paper I – Click Here to Download Pdf

Paper 4: Law Paper II – Click Here to Download Pdf

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2015

Paper 1: English – Click Here to Download Pdf

Paper 2: Hindi – Click Here to Download Pdf

Paper 3: Law Paper I – Click Here to Download Pdf

Paper 4: Law Paper II – Click Here to Download

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2016

Paper 1: English – Click Here to Download

Paper 2: Hindi – Click Here to Download

Paper 3: Law Paper I – Click Here to Download

Paper 4: Law Paper II – Click Here to Download

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2017

Paper 1: English – Click Here to Download

Paper 2: Hindi – Click Here to Download

Paper 3: Law Paper I – Click Here to Download

Paper 4: Law Paper II – Click Here to Download

Rajasthan Judicial Service (Civil Judge) Main Examination 2018

Paper 1: English – Click Here to Download

Paper 2: Hindi – Click Here to Download

Paper 3: Law Paper I – Click Here to Download

Paper 4: Law Paper II – Click Here to Download

Module IV: Test Series

  1. Prelims Mock Test Series
  2. Mains Mock Test Series
  3. Previous Year Test Series

Module V: Rajasthan Judicial Service Exam Study Material

  1. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
  2. Law of Contracts
  3. Constitutional Law
  4. Criminal Laws
    1. Indian Penal Code (IPC),
    2. Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC)
    3. Evidence Act
  5. The Specific Relief Act, 1963
  6. The Limitation Act, 1963
  7. Property Law
  8. Interpretation of Statutes
  9. Rajasthan Rent Control Act
  10. The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015
  11. The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
  12. The Probation of Offenders Act, 1958
  13. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
  14. The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
  15. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012
  16. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (prevention, prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
  17. Contemporary Legal Issue (For Essays)



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Important Judgments of 2022: Legal Bites Year Update


The Article explains ‘Important Judgments of 2022: Legal Bites Year Update’ and the cases are basically related to the arbitration agreements, fundamental rights, limitations, evidence act, foreign contribution, and so on and so forth. The idea of the author is to make all the readers well-versed with the case laws decided by High Courts or Supreme Court.

Case laws are important to have clarity on any subject matter of law and so the author has tried to make a clear concept of various spheres. Various cases bring certain changes which are generally helpful to the people to understand the dynamic aspect of law with the changing time.

Important Judgments of 2022: Legal Bites Year Update

1. Monirul Molla v. The State of West Bengal[1]

This case was related to Section 53 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. In this case, the Calcutta High Court issued a directive to trial courts in West Bengal stipulating that a sentence of life imprisonment till death, without any scope of remission, can only be passed in rape cases.

The Court observed that such a sentence of life imprisonment till one’s death can only be imposed by the higher judiciary that is the Supreme Court or the High Court when commuting sentences.

Click Here and read more about this case.

2. Delhi Airport Metro Express Pvt. Ltd. v. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation[2]

This recent case was concerned with Section 31(7)(a) Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 i.e. Power of the arbitral tribunal to award interest if parties are subject to an agreement on the same. In this case, the issue which was raised was Can an arbitral tribunal award interest if the parties have agreed otherwise? In answer to this the Supreme Court held that when the parties have an agreement between themselves that governs the issue of interest, the arbitrator would lose its discretion and will be guided by the agreement between the parties.

Click Here and read more about this case.

3. Jacob Pulivel v. Union Of India[3]

In this case, it was held that, as no substantial data has been produced on record to show that the risk of transmission of COVID-19 virus from the unvaccinated persons is higher than from vaccinated persons, vaccine mandates imposed by various state governments and other authorities in the context of COVID-19 pandemic are “not proportionate” when the raised issue was whether the policy of the Union and State Government on COVID-19 vaccination policy is a reasonable restriction to the right to bodily integrity of a person under Article 21.

Click Here and read more about this case.

4. Mahesh Lal N.Y. v. State of Kerala[4]

In the following case, the Kerala High Court has ruled that the consent of an accused is not necessary to acquire their voice sample for the purpose of comparison, since it has already been established obtaining that voice samples of the accused do not infringe Article 20 (3) of the Constitution of India.

While dismissing a petition alleging that the accused was not given an opportunity of being heard before being directed to produce his voice sample, Justice R. Narayana Pisharadi held that the accused had no right of option in the matter.

Click Here and read more about this case.

5. The Secretary of Govt. of Kerala Irrigation Department And Ors. v. James Varghese And Ors.[5]

This case was related to the Constitutional validity of the Kerala Revocation of Arbitration Clauses and Reopening of Awards Act, 1998 in which the main issue was whether the Kerala state legislature is competent to enact the Kerala Revocation of Arbitration Clauses and Reopening of Awards Act, 1998, and whether its state legislature violated and encroached judicial power.

In this regard, the Supreme Court held the Kerala Revocation of Arbitration Clauses and Reopening of Awards Act, 1998 to be unconstitutional as it had the effect of annulling the awards passed by the arbitrators and the judgments and decrees passed by the courts.

Click Here and read more about this case.

6. Basant v. State of Madhya Pradesh & Ors.[6]

In this case, a crucial question came up before the High Court of Madhya Pradesh whether hearsay statements made contemporaneously with the acts or immediately thereafter will be admissible in the evidence as per the provisions of Section 6 of the Evidence Act.

The Hon’ble court held that the statement made by the deceased contemporaneously with the act or immediately thereafter would be admissible as a dying declaration under Section 32 of the Indian Evidence Act. (Rule of res gestae). Herein the related provision was Section 6 of the Indian Evidence Act Relevancy of facts forming part of the same transaction.

7. Periyakaruppan v. The Principal Secretary to Govt. and Anr.[7]

In this case, a petition was filed by a former Taluk Tahsildar to quash the Govt. The order imposing compulsory retirement and a penalty of reduction of 1/3rd pension and other retirement benefits for colluding with other officers and granting Patta in forest lands to private individuals and the issue that came forward was whether penalty be imposed on the petitioner, in case the punishment of co-delinquent was quashed or dropped and the entries’ land records were also modified and pattas canceled.

The Kerala High Court opined that since the land in question was classified as “Forest Land” necessary intervention was needed. The court modified the order of compulsory retirement as a stoppage of increment for six months without cumulative effect.

The Court also observed that nature shall have fundamental rights/legal rights and constitutional rights for its survival, safety and sustenance, and resurgence in order to maintain its status and also to promote its health and wellbeing. The court also directed the State Government and the Central Government to take appropriate steps to protect the mother earth in all possible ways.

8. Sunil Kumar Maity v. State Bank of India[8]

This case dealt with Section 5 of the limitation act that does not apply to the institution of the civil suit in the Civil Court, the supreme court said in a judgment on 21st January 2022. The court observed thus while setting aside judgment a passed by the NCDRC in which it observed that the complainant would be at liberty to seek remedy in the competent Civil Court.

The Commission further observed that if he chooses to bring an action in a Civil Court, he is free to file an application under Section 5 of the Limitation Act, 1963. The commission also recorded the statement of the council for the SBI that it will not press the issue of limitation affection as brought by the complainant in a Civil Court.

9. Haryana Urban Development Authority, Karnal v. M/s. Mehta Construction Company and another [9]

This case was in relation to section 34 of the arbitration and conciliation act of 1996. According to Section 34(3) of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996-

an application for setting aside an award is to be made within three months from the date on which a party filing objections under sub-section (1) to Section 34 has received the arbitral award proviso court may condone the delay of a period up to thirty days in filing of the objections if it is satisfied that the applicant is prevented by sufficient cause from making an application under Section 34(1) of the Act – there were only eight days’ delay – the reason was provided – inter alia, it took time to get sanction from the concerned authorities – Courts below ought to have condoned the delay.

Section 34(2)(a) of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 provides that an arbitral award can be set aside by the Court if the Court finds the award is vitiated by patent illegality appearing on the face of the award – proviso – the award shall not be set aside merely on the ground of erroneous application of law or by misappreciation of evidence.

10. Noel Harper and Ors. v. Union of India[10]

This case was related to the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act 2010. In this case, the Court upheld the 2020 amendments made to the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act restrictions in the handling of foreign contributions organizations in India.

The Court interpreted that the payment to third-party agencies in furtherance of the purposes of the recipient would be a case of “utilization” and not “transfer”. “Transfer” within the meaning of Section 7 would be transferred to third parties for acts beyond the purposes for which the FCRA approval has been granted. Based on this interpretation the court said that section 7 was intra-vires.

Click Here and read more about this case.

11. Sulaxani & Anr v. Sattar Ali & Ors.[11]

In this interesting case, a question was raised whether a Mohammedan person can execute his will for more than 1/3rd share of his property without the consent of all legal heirs? In which the Chattisgarh High Court held that Mahommedan can’t execute a will for more than 1/3rd share of his property without the consent of all legal heirs. The Court further observed that the following conditions must be filled up for a valid will to be executed by Mohammedan:

(a) A bequest may be executed by any Muslim to another, including an institution and a class of people;

(b) The persons entitled to make or take a will must have the capacity to make or take a will;

(c) A bequest must be made of some subject;

(d) Formalities of making a will must be fulfilled;

(e) Only one-third of property can be bequeathed;

(f) Bequest to heirs is restricted;

(g) Conditional contingent and future bequests are void.

12. X v. The Principal Secretary, Health and Family Welfare Department, Govt. of NCT of Delhi & Anr.[12]

This case revolves around the interpretation of Rule 3B of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Rules. The appellant here was an unmarried woman aged 25 years who became pregnant out of a consensual relationship. The appellant here decided to terminate her pregnancy fearful of ‘raising and nurturing the child as an unmarried mother’ when her partner refused to marry her at the last stage.

The appellant sought permission for the same under Section 3(2)(b) and Rule 3B(c) of the MTP Rules 2003. The High Court rejected the same justification that ‘unmarried women’ are not covered under any clauses of the said Act, therefore, Section 3(2)(b) would not be applicable to the facts of this case. The Apex Court passed an interim order permitting the appellant to terminate her pregnancy. The Supreme Court gave a remarkable judgment highlighting the issue that unmarried women cannot be denied their right to safe abortion merely because of the orthodox rules of society and thus enabled the unmarried woman to live a dignified life as per her own choice.

Click Here and read more about this case

13. Aishat Shifa v. State of Karnataka & Ors.[13]

On 13 October 2022, the Supreme Court issued a split decision regarding the ban on wearing the hijab in educational institutions in Karnataka. One judge ruled that the state government has the right to enforce uniform policies in schools, while the other judge argued that wearing the hijab is a personal choice that cannot be restricted by the government.

All appeals against the Karnataka High Court decision, which held in March that wearing the hijab by Muslim women is not required by Islam and that the Karnataka government has the authority to implement the uniform requirement, were rejected by Justice Hemant Gupta in his ruling. Contrary to the senior judge on the bench, Justice Sudhanshu Dhulia allowed all of the appeals. In the main body of his decision, Justice Dhulia stated that a Muslim girl’s decision to wear a headscarf is her own and that there cannot be any restrictions placed on that decision.

Click Here and read more about this case.

14. Vinod Katara v. State of Uttar Pradesh[14]

It is one of the landmark decisions of the Supreme Court, which emphasized that even after the final disposition of a Special Leave Petition, the plea of juvenility may be brought in any court at any time. When the plea of juvenility is raised at a late stage, various medical tests are frequently used to make a determination in the absence of the necessary documentation. While considering the evidence presented on behalf of the accused to support his claim that he is a juvenile, the court shall err on the side of holding the accused to be a juvenile in circumstances where there is a question of fact. This is not a roving inquiry that is being considered.

The Court may accept other proof of age, such as documents, certificates, etc., in lieu of an affidavit. A simple statement that the accused appeared to be one or two years older than the age he claimed to be (as the headmaster in this case said) or that the accused stated his age to be higher than what he claims in the case while being arrested by the police officer would not be very persuasive. The age of a juvenile involved in a legal dispute is often determined by the documentation that has been made public. And the only instances in which the Court, the Juvenile Justice Board, or the Committee must order a medical examination to determine the accused’s age are those in which the documents or certificates submitted by the accused in support of his claim of juvenility are discovered to be falsified or manipulated.

Click Here and read more about this case.

15. More Judgments to Follow…

References

[1] C.R.A. 604 of 2014

[2] Civil Appeal No. 5628 of 2021

[3] WP (C) 607 of 2021

[4] CRL.MC NO. 3358 OF 2021

[5] Civil Appeal No. 6258 of 2014

[6] Writ Petition No. 6022 of 2005

[7] W.P(MD)No. 18636 of 2013

[8] Civil Appeal 432 of 202

[9] Civil Appeal No. 2693 of 2022

[10] Writ Petition (Civil) No. 566 of 2021

[11] Second Appeal No.474 of 2007

[12] Special Leave Petition (Civil) No 12612 of 2022

[13] Civil Appeal No. 7095 of 2022

[14] Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 121 of 2022



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Study Material, Test Series and Tips


BPSC conducts Bihar Judicial Services Exam every year for the recruitment of Civil Judges. The BPSC Judicial Service recruitment is carried out in three phases – Prelims, Mains, and Interview. The examination is the entry-level exam for law graduates to become appointed as members of the subordinate judiciary.

Take your BJS preparation to the next level with Legal Bites. Count on us for Prelims and Mains exam needs, Previous Year Papers, Mock Tests, Subject Tests, Study Material, Syllabus, Tips, and Notifications.

Bihar Judicial Services: Study Material, Test Series and Tips

Module I: Notification, Syllabus and Tips

  1. Official Website Notification: Bihar Public Service Commission
  2. Follow Telegram Channel for Regular Updates: AIJS Aspirants
  3. Video Lecture: Available here on YouTube

Module II: Bihar Judicial Services Exam Mains Previous Year Papers

Bihar Judicial Services Exam Mains 2021 Previous Year Paper

Paper I: General Knowledge (सामान्य ज्ञान)

Paper II: Elementary General Science (प्रारंभिक सामान्य विज्ञान)

Paper III: General English

Paper IV: Hindi

Paper V: Law of Evidence and Procedure (साक्ष्य एवं प्रक्रिया विधि)

Optional Paper I: Constitutional and Administrative Law of India (भारत की सांविधानिक एवं प्रशासनिक विधि)

Optional Paper II: Hindu Law and Muhammadan Law (हिन्दू विधि और मुस्लिम विधि)

Optional Paper III: Law of Transfer of Property And Principles of Equity: Including the Law of Trusts And Specific Relief (सम्पत्ति अन्तरण विधि और साम्या सिद्धान्त, न्यास विधि और विशिष्ट अनुतोष सहित)

Optional Paper IV: Law of Contracts and Torts) (संविदा तथा अपकृत्य विधि)

Optional Paper V: Commercial Law (वाणिज्य विधि)

Module III: Bihar Judicial Services Exam Prelims Previous Year Papers

To be uploaded

Module IV: Bihar Judicial Services Exam Test Series

  1. Prelims MCQ Practice (Redirects to Law Aspirants)
  2. BJS Mains Mock Test Series (Redirects to Legal Bites Academy)

Module V: Bihar Judicial Services Exam Study Material

  1. Law of Evidence
  2. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908
  3. Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC)
  4. Constitutional Law of India
  5. Administrative Law
  6. Hindu Law
  7. Muslim Law
  8. Property Law
  9. The Specific Relief Act, 1963 (Refer Module 13)
  10. Law of Contracts
  11. Law of Torts
  12. Company Law
  13. Legal General Knowledge: Notes, Tips & Study Material



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Study Material, Test Series and Tips


Assam Judicial Services Examination is organized each year by the Gauhati High Court to recruit eligible candidates for the Grade III posts of subordinate Judiciary. The competitive exam is held in 3 phases i.e Preliminary, Mains, and Interview. The candidates need to qualify for each of these phases to be selected for the Grade III posts. The examination is the entry-level exam for law graduates.

Take your AJS preparation to the next level with Legal Bites. Count on us for Prelims and Mains exam needs, Previous Year Papers, Mock Tests, Subject Tests, Study Material, Syllabus, Tips, and Notifications.

Assam Judicial Services Examination: Study Material, Test Series and Tips

Module I: Notification, Syllabus and Tips

1. Syllabus

2. The Most Efficient Strategy for Clearing the Assam Judicial Prelims Examination

3. Official Website Notification: Gauhati High Court

4. Follow Telegram Channel for Regular Updates: AIJS Aspirants

5. Video Lecture: Available here on YouTube

Module II: Assam Judicial Services Examination Mains Previous Year Papers

To be uploaded

Module III: Assam Judicial Services Examination Prelims Previous Year Papers PDFs

1. Assam Judiciary Prelims Examination 2020 Solved Paper

2. Assam Judiciary Prelims Examination 2019 Solved Paper

3. Assam Judiciary Prelims Examination 2018 Solved Paper

4. Assam Judiciary Prelims Examination 2017 Solved Paper

5. Assam Judiciary Prelims Examination 2015 Solved Paper

Module IV: Assam Judicial Services Examination Test Series

1. Prelims MCQ Practice (Redirects to Law Aspirants)

2. AJS Mains Mock Test Series (Redirects to Legal Bites Academy)

Module V: Assam Judicial Services Examination Study Material

1. Constitution of India

2. Civil Procedure Code

3. Indian Contract Act

4. Transfer of Property Act

5. Indian Penal Code

6. Criminal Procedure Code

7. Indian Evidence Act

8. Law of Torts

9. Legal General Knowledge: Notes, Tips & Study Material



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