Importance of Geographical Indication | Intellectual Property Rights

Importance of Geographical Indication | Intellectual Property Rights

The article ‘Importance of Geographical Indication’ provides an overview of the concept of Geographical Indication, highlighting its significance in preserving authenticity, promoting regional identity, and fostering economic development.

Definition of Geographical Indication

Geographical Indication (GI) is a form of intellectual property protection that identifies a product as originating from a specific geographical location or region. It serves to highlight the unique qualities, characteristics, reputation, or other attributes of a product that can be attributed to its geographical origin.

According to Section 2(e) of the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999:

“geographical indication, in relation to goods, means an indication which identifies such goods as agricultural goods, natural goods or manufactured goods as originating, or manufactured in the territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of such goods is essentially attributable to its geographical origin and in case where such goods are manufactured goods one of the activities of either the production or of processing or preparation of the goods concerned takes place in such territory, region or locality, as the case may be.”

Importance of Geographical Indication

The importance of Geographical Indication can be understood through the following points:

Quality and Authenticity: GI certification assures consumers that a product possesses certain qualities or characteristics unique to its geographical origin. It ensures that the product is made using traditional methods, specific ingredients, or has specific attributes associated with that region. This helps protect consumers from counterfeit or inferior products, ensuring they get authentic and quality goods.

Economic Value: GI products often have higher market value due to their reputation, quality, and distinctiveness. By protecting the geographical origin of these products, GI provides a competitive advantage to producers from that region. It promotes local industries, supports rural economies, and encourages sustainable agricultural practices by providing economic incentives to maintain traditional production methods.

Cultural Preservation: GI protection contributes to the preservation of cultural heritage and traditional knowledge associated with specific regions. It safeguards traditional craftsmanship, agricultural practices, and local customs that have been passed down through generations. GI recognition encourages the continuation of these practices, promoting cultural diversity and safeguarding intangible cultural heritage.

Rural Development: Geographical Indications often represent products that are deeply connected to specific rural regions. By protecting and promoting these products, GI schemes can stimulate rural development. They create employment opportunities, enhance income generation, and attract tourism and investment to these regions. GI protection can help revitalize rural economies, maintain traditional livelihoods, and prevent migration from rural to urban areas.

Consumer Protection: GI certification provides consumers with reliable information about the origin and quality of products they purchase. It allows them to make informed choices, supporting their preferences for unique, traditional, and high-quality goods. Consumers can trust that products with a GI label meet specific standards and have undergone rigorous quality checks.

International Trade: Geographical Indications play a crucial role in international trade. They enable producers from specific regions to differentiate their products in global markets, stand out among competitors, and gain access to niche markets. GI protection ensures fair competition and prevents unfair practices such as misleading use of geographical names or attempts to imitate renowned products from specific regions.

Overall, Geographical Indication is important for promoting economic development, preserving cultural heritage, protecting consumers, and fostering sustainable agricultural practices. It recognizes the value of specific regions and their unique products, benefiting both producers and consumers alike.

GI in India and Foreign Countries

In India, several products have been granted GI protection, highlighting the cultural and agricultural diversity of the country. Some well-known examples include Darjeeling tea, Banarasi silk, Kanchipuram silk, Alphonso mangoes, Nagpur oranges, Kashmir saffron, and many more. These registrations help protect the reputation and market value of these products, as well as support the livelihoods of the communities involved in their production.

Foreign countries also have their own systems for the protection of GIs. Some notable examples of GIs from foreign countries include:

Champagne (France): Champagne is a sparkling wine produced exclusively in the Champagne region of France. It is protected as a GI in several countries to ensure that only wines produced in that specific region can be labelled as Champagne.

Parmigiano-Reggiano (Italy): Parmigiano-Reggiano, often referred to as Parmesan cheese, is a hard cheese produced in specific regions of Italy. The name “Parmigiano-Reggiano” is protected as a GI to prevent the use of the name for similar cheeses produced outside those regions.

Scotch whisky (Scotland): Scotch whisky is a renowned alcoholic beverage produced in Scotland. The term “Scotch whisky” is protected as a GI to safeguard the reputation and quality of whisky produced in Scotland.

Roquefort cheese (France): Roquefort cheese is a blue cheese made from sheep’s milk and aged in natural caves in the Roquefort-sur-Soulzon region of France. It is protected as a GI to preserve the traditional methods of production and the unique characteristics of the cheese.


Geographical Indication (GI) protection is indeed significant in the modern world. It plays a crucial role in safeguarding and promoting the intellectual property rights associated with products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities, reputation, or other characteristics attributable to that origin. To support and promote GI protection, countries establish legal frameworks and participate in international agreements such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO). These frameworks provide a basis for the protection, registration, and enforcement of GIs at the national and international levels.


[1] Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999

[2] Importance of Geographical Indication Tags in India, Available Here

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